Yearly Archives: 2013

‘M’ is for Manual Photography Week 4 – Exposure

dslr-viewfinder-meta copy

Original Image via here

Dearest Manual Enthusiasts

If you have made it this far my sincere congratulations. I know there seems like a lot to plough through (hey we’re just getting started) but once you have mastered the basics of manual photography it’s about practice and moving onto some more advanced concepts.

Today I want to chat about exposure because this is the zenith of photography. And you need to know how to correctly expose your images.

A correctly exposed image is simply the right combination of an F-Stop, Shutter Speed and ISO. Yep girls, that is how easy it all is!!

Now I can hear you saying but what is the right combination of F-Stops and Shutter Speeds?

Think of it like a recipe, you have the choice of many ingredients and depending on how you want your cake or photo to turn out on which ingredients you choose.

You can start by choosing an F-Stop or by choosing a shutter speed you want to work on or an ISO. Depending on what light you are shooting you will need to consider the ISO so select one that you think suits the lighting conditions.

Now choose an F-Stop that you would like to work with and find something you want to photograph.

Once you have done that, look into your viewfinder and at the bottom of the image you should see a slider like in the above image. This indicates if your image is correctly exposed or not.

To expose your image correctly adjust your F-Stop or Shutter Speed so that the slider finishes right in the centre. As you move your dials watch closely and you will see it move.

Trouble Shooting:

If your dial will no longer move you may need to adjust up or down your ISO as your ISO doesn’t match the light conditions and the F-Stop/Shutter speed combination you want to work with.

Once you have found the right exposure re-check your shutter speed and make sure it is above 1/125 second if you want to hand hold your camera otherwise you will have camera shake. If it’s not consider changing the F-Stop to compensate for it.

If you have found the right exposure you but want to change F-Stop or Shutter speed, remember that you can’t change one without the other otherwise your image will be under or over exposed. For eg. If you were working at F-8 1/250 sec and wanted to shoot with F-5.6 you would need to adjust your shutter speed to 1/500 sec.. Why because when you go from F-8 to F5.6 you are doubling the light coming into the camera and to compensate you need to change your shutter speed so that it will take this ‘adjustment away’. From 1/250 to 1/500 sec you are halving the amount of light coming into your camera..

There are somethings that will trick your camera into exposing the image incorrectly, like a pure white wall or a pure black wall or a back lit image. For this exercise try and avoid these.

When you have found the right combination and your slider is directly underneath the indicator take a pic and voila it should be correctly exposed.

I hope these past 4 weeks have helped you make the jump from automatic to manual. If you were lost at any point my suggestion would be to go back and try again. Sometimes the concepts are a little slow to sink in.

Wishing you wonderful photos and much enjoyment taking your digital SLR off road.




“Freedom is nothing but a chance to be better.” Albert Camus

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‘M’ is for Manual Photography Week 3 – ISO and Depth of Field

F2.8 50 mm lens carla coulson

PHOTO 1: Depth of field – Shot at F2.8mm Note the focus point doesn’t change in the following images. Wallpaper, book, phone, most of tulips and chair in foreground blurry. Click on photo to read all text

A big fabulous good morning to you as I am about to leave for Sydney.

This is the 3rd post in the series ‘M’ is for Manual photography and it is for those of you who want to get off automatic on your fab digital SLR and head on over to manual. You can catch the first two posts here  Your Camera and F-Stops and Shutter Speeds .

So here we go on one of the most exciting things about photography and something all the girls love. Good old depth of field.

Depth of Field

The depth of field refers to the amount of distance in your photo that is in focus from your focal point (the point you choose to focus on). Yep with manual photography we get to decide what we want in focus and what we want blurry.

Now here is the brain bender for all of us! There is double whammy bonus that is associated with F-Stops. Not not only do F-Stops control the amount of  light coming  into your camera (which you saw in Week 2 they also control the depth of field).

Are you still with me?

So we learnt last week that F-Stops halve or double the amount of light coming into your camera as we change them but something else happens.. drum roll….

Yep, girls it’s called more blur or less blur and it is one of the most fabulous techniques in photography.

So let’s talk about the difference in depth of field of our F-Stops.

When you choose a point to focus on in your image known as focal point that is the point you want to be sharp. There is a ‘field’ of space that is in focus other than the focal point depending on the F-Stop you have chosen.

I did a  little example for you starting with F2.8 changing to F5.6 then F8 then F22. The top shot (Photo 1) was shot at F2.8 and I focus on St Gennaro the little statue and you can see very little other than the stack of photos he is sitting on is in focus and maybe one of the tulips.

F5.6 50 mm carla coulson

PHOTO 2: F5.6 same focal point on St Gennaro

In Photo 2 I didn’t change the focus point here I only changed the F-Stop and the shutter speed. Changing From F2.8 to F56 meant I gained a lot more depth of field. If you have a look at the line on the right it has lengthened from the first shot. The foreground is in focus (not  the chair)  and more of the tulip flowers are in focus.

F8 50 mm lens carla coulson

PHOTO 3: F8 – Same focal point on St Gennaro

In Photo 3 I have kept the same focal point and changed the FStop to F8 and I am gaining more depth of field. You will see the line on the right stretches from in front of the chair right back to the tip of the book. The red phone is also starting to come into focus and the wallpaper is far less blurry than in Photo 1.

F22 50 mm Carla coulson PHOTO 4: F22 – The focal point is still on St Gennaro

In Photo 4 I went from F8 to F22 and you can see everything is in focus from the white chair in the foreground to the crazy wallpaper including the book, the orchid and the phone. F22 is the big kahuna of FStops, you know you want everything in focus this is your starting point.

F2- Only the focal point is in focus and a couple of mm behind it and the rest of the photo and background is soft blur.

F2.8- Still a very shallow depth of field but a little more field than the F2

F4 – More depth of field but still considered a shallow depth of field

F5.6 – A middle of the road depth of field that you will still have blur in the background

F8 – Good when shooting more than one person who are on different planes

F16 – Almost all the image is in focus

F22 – The whole world is almost in focus from the point of focus to the infinity of the background..



Image via Fuji


Remember in the old days when you wanted to take some photos you would buy a roll of film. Often the person at the camera shop would ask you would you like a 100, 200 or 400 etc?

These numbers referred to ISO or sometimes ASA and they are the numbers that determine the sensitivity of the film. You would choose your film based on the ‘amount’ of light you were going to shoot in or the effect you wanted.

The higher you go in the ISO numbers the more sensitive the film or ISO becomes which basically means it’s like gaining stops of light. So if you went from a 400 ISO to an 800 ISO it’s like doubling the light that will enter your camera. The same concept as we saw with F-stops and Shutter speeds (say for example you were working at 1/125 second, F4, ISO 400 but you wanted to shoot at 1/125 second F5.6 to have more depth of field you could go up  800 ISO and that would give you an extra stop of light you need via the sensibility of the film/digital).

Now let’s talk about light for a second because that’s the basis of photography.

When is there lots of light and when is there less light?

Midday in the middle of summer is about the most natural light you can have.

When you go into the shade on a sunny day there is less light than standing the in full sun.

In summer in the morning or the evening the light is softer, less harsh or strong than at midday so technically there is less light.

In winter the light has different angles and is softer than in summer and for example on a Parisian’s winter day the light is very low .

Entering a building you are dramatically reducing the amount of light that your camera will see.

Twilight hour as the sun is going you are loosing light.

Night – very low light

So it is really important that you understand what kind of light you are shooting in as this will help you choose your ISO. If you were shooting hand held (not on a tripod)  the following may help you select your ISO.

ISO Number – Light conditions

100 – Bright sunny day tonnes of light – Low grain/noise

200 – You have a little more flexibility with 200 than 100 like gaining a stop of light – low grain/noise

400 – Good for lower light conditions, cloudy, shady – Grain/noise

800 –  Shooting hand held inside or as the light is fading around twilight

1600 – Photo journalists often used this ISO as if they wanted to shoot inside or outside they had a lot of flexibility

3200 – Shooting at night or in low light interiors hand held – Really Grainy

You will see from the list above that as you go up in ISO your images will have more grain or noise. Everything in photography is a trade-off.

Now the key with ISO is about what light you are shooting in. In the old days say I wanted to shoot in bright sunlight (ie tonnes of light) I would have chosen a 100 ISO film and that is exactly what I would choose now on my digital dial.  Why? Because having a lot of light I don’t need to compensate by using more sensitivity with my ISO.

Now we are really lucky with digital because instead of having a roll of film in our camera that doesn’t suit the lighting conditions we can simply change the ISO setting on our camera by pressing the ISO button and rolling our dial.

I would suggest you do some tests of your own like I did in the above example with F-Stops to see what happens before your eyes and blow the images up on your screen. It’s magic.

Also press down your ISO button and see what happens. You should see the numbers moving along the bottom when looking through the viewfinder.

You’re almost there.. Next week exposure and once you have nailed that you are on your way.

Best of luck

“Balance of light is the problem, not the amount. Balance between shadows and highlights determines where the emphasis goes in the picture…make sure the major light in a picture falls at right angles to the camera.” Elliot Erwitt




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Paris And I – Our 9th Anniversary

Carla Coulson_along the seine winter_ All images from Paris Tango

It was nine years ago this week that I had finished Italian Joy, sent her bundled up off to the publisher and packed up my Florentine life and moved to Paris.

Unlike the modern traveller I poured myself onto the Eurolines bus with my worldly goods (an archive of negatives and photography books) and travelled the old fashioned way kilometre by kilometre from Florence to Paris.

There were a million thoughts going through my head as we drove through the night in a silent bubble with others slumbering around me finally passing the Italian border.  When I arrived in the Marais that first night I remember being filled with wonder and hope.

As the days passed it suddenly dawned on me what had happened.

I had arrived in a city where I knew no-one, I couldn’t speak the language, I had left my ‘happy place’ far behind in Florence, my love was finishing his architecture degree in Lyon and I was freezing my butt off.

Life became really difficult like someone turned the light off.

Carla Coulson place vendome christmas

Christmas Rue Castiglione Copyright Carla Coulson

But I had done this ‘moving country’ thing before. Why was it all of a sudden so difficult?

Naive as I was I didn’t understand there was a great difference between choosing a country  you want to live in and choosing one that someone else wants to live in (in case you have just tuned in hubby wanted to move to France).

I asked myself over and over again ‘had I ruined my life’, it certainly felt like I had. If moving to Italy for me had been a breeze this was a battle. Finding an apartment impossible, opening a bank account an olympic event without a gas bill and just hearing a ‘yes’ every now and then was a modern miracle. And I couldn’t understand a single word they were saying..

Paris has so many lessons to teach you. Paris was not mother Italy that opened her arms and dragged me to her bosom, fed me when things got rough or found a way around everything. At first glance she is a beautiful princess on the outside and a tough old bag on the inside who adores saying ‘non, c’est pas possible’ and entering her bosom is like prising open the door to Pandora’s box.

But when you finally enter there is stardust all around!

Carla Coulson_Dior Haute Couture Gown

Dior by John Galliano Copyright Carla Coulson

Photography, my forever muse saved me! She connected me to people and to Paris. My first job was to shoot the haute couture gowns at Dior, Valentino and Christian Lacroix and off I trotted into the magical world of Paris to become another victim to her enchantment.

The feast continued when I started to work on Paris Tango
and My French Lifeand I really had the chance see Paris in all her layers.

Carla Coulson PERFUME djordje varda at the Ritz Hotel Paris

Florist Djordje Varda at the Ritz Paris Copyright Carla Coulson

But if our reason for being on this planet is to evolve as human beings, to learn and grow there was a reason I needed to live in Paris. I had so much to learn and she has taught me so much.

Carla Coulson dogs metro

On the Paris Metro Copyright Carla Coulson

You see before I turned up here I was a ‘pushover’. Paris gave me a backbone, she taught me to stand up for myself and alllowed me to find my voice. She taught me that many things are worth fighting for even if they are on a daily basis!!!

Carla Coulson_Buying Tea at Mariage Freres

Buying tea Marriage Freres Copyright Carla Coulson

Paris is the keeper of beauty, she understands patina and discretion like no-other country and she will hold off on that reno as long as she can because she knows in her heart that peeling paint is an additional layer of life and part of her story.

Carla Coulson_artist hippolyte romain

Artist Hippolyte Romain Copyright Carla Coulson

Paris showed me how she respects the world of artists and their art. To live in a world where art is valued and treasured makes my heart skip a beat.

Carla Coulson_luc making baguettes

Baker in the 9th Copyright Carla Coulson

And no-one loves tradition like France. There are still people that give up a lifetime of nights to bake bread the way it was always baked!

Carla Coulson -chimney sweep

Chimney sweep going down my stairs Copyright Carla Coulson

Or to come and clean your chimney like something you imagined only existed in a children’s book.  I nearly died with love the first time my local chimney sweep knocked on my door with his ‘pipe cleaners’ swung over his shoulder. Are they serious I asked?

primo maggio 2

Lady selling Muguet at Bastille Markets Copyright Carla Coulson

And traditions like selling Lily of the Valley on May Day are alive and well and dear women like this one fossick in the forest to gather it and sell on the street corner on the 1st of May.

Carla Coulson BLACK AND WHITE OR LES PARISIAN Jules and Yann at La Perle

Yann and Robert La Perle Copyright Carla Coulson

And the Parisians themselves are a wonderful lesson in beauty, discretion and I adore how they speak in ‘whisper quiet’ voices as they chat to each other across a small wooden bistro table.

PARISIANS cafe st Germain La Palette

La Palette Paris Copyright Carla Coulson

Paris showed me that love is all around if you open your eyes and look for it.

Carla Coulson Shay Marais night

Dancer Shay Stafford in the 2nd Copyright Carla Coulson

That beauty is in the details and the form.

Carla Coulson Moulin Rouge

Backstage Moulin Rouge Copyright Carla Coulson

And the fantasy!

Carla Coulson pont des arts

All Images from Paris Tango Copyright Carla Coulson

I now hoon around Paris on my old bike like I have known her forever. There are moments when I come screeching to a halt, mouth hanging open like a labrador dog in wonderment at something I have just seen. Paris is full of surprises, there is one at almost every corner.

Paris taught me to be grateful for daily happiness, friendship and love.

And no matter what happens in the coming years, baby it has been a hell of a ride, you have taught me so much and I will be forever grateful for this opportunity to have floated around your streets, your cafes, your museums and your gardens. To have walked hand in hand across the bridges with the man I love and hugged you close to me.

Looking forward to our 10th year together!

‘Rick (Humphrey Bogart): If that plane leaves the ground and you’re not with him, you’ll regret it. Maybe not today. Maybe not tomorrow, but soon and for the rest of your life.

Ilsa (Ingrid Bergman): But what about us?
Rick (Humphrey Bogart): We’ll always have Paris.’

From the movie Casablanca





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‘M’ is for Manual Photography Week 2 – F-Stops and Shutter Speeds


F-Stops on my Leica M8 start at F2 then move to F2.8, F4, F5.6, F8 and up to F16..

Hello Manual Enthusiasts,

Thanks for joining me again in this foray into manual photography. In case you missed last week ‘Your Camera‘ you can catch it here.

Today I am just dealing  with the two subjects that control light coming into your camera, F-Stops and Shutter Speeds.

Now I am going to show you how things work on my Leica (which has fewer buttons and gadgets like analogue camera’s had) and is much simpler to get your head around than all the digital numbers that appear on our LCD screens.

Tomorrow’s post will be about Depth of Field and Exposure so stay tuned.

What is an F-Stop??

You will see on the lens above that there are numbers 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6 and they keep going on this camera right up to F16. These numbers are the F-stops and by moving the ring and selecting a different number you are opening or closing the lens and letting more or less light in to the camera.

Now heres the confusing thing for us girls. A bloke designed this for sure because in my opinion it’s the wrong way around.

Small numbers like F2 or F2.8 mean ‘more light’ entering your camera and high numbers like F16 means ‘less light’ entering your camera.

Now wouldn’t it have made more sense to do it the other way around???

So you have to think like a bloke (illogically.. ha ha guys) when you want more or less light

Small numbers = equal lots of light

High Numbers = not much light

What happens when you go from F2.8 to F4? Basically you are halving the light that enters your camera.. If you go from F2.8 to F2 you are doubling the light. Just a little detail to know that as you move along the scale from one F-Stop to the next you are doubling or halving the light entering your camera. This can be a big deal and save your shot if you are working with low light (that’s why good camera lenses cost a lot of money because they have low F-Stops such as F2).

Have a look at the image below and you will see the black circles are the lens and the white circles are the lens openings. You  will see at F22 the opening is really small (not much light coming in) and F2.8 really large (loads of light coming).


fstops demystifiedImage via Pinterest

Now on fancy digital SLR cameras you no longer simply move the ring on the outside of the camera (unless you are lucky) to change F-Stops you have to use one of your selectors. Now in my case on my Canon 5D I use the wheel on the back of the camera to select the F-Stop. See image below with stars!

So if you are looking into your viewfinder and move this wheel (on my camera yours may be different) you should see the numbers changing along the bottom of the image.

wheel to change f-stop


Shutter Speed

I love shutter speed! It’s the area where we get to choose whether we want motion blur or our action frozen in time…

The shutter wheel dial again on my Leica is just a simple wheel and this is how you should think of shutter speed even if you have a fancy digital SLR.


 Shutter speed wheel and values on my Leica M8

Shutter speeds work in fractions of a second and as you move up the scale from  1/30, 1/60,1/125/1/250, 1/500 you are doing two things:

1. Letting less light into your camera because the speed is faster and the shutter is open for less time

2. Changing how your image is captured. The higher the shutter speed such as 1/500 the more likely movement in your photo will be frozen, at a 1/30 second you will have lots of blur.

wayne chick 4

Image shot at 1/30 second. You can really see the blur here..

Carla Coulson Wayne Chick

Shot at 1/125 second.. Here she is moving towards me and curtseying so  there is a little movement of her hair etc but you can see the dress clearly unlike in the top shot.

Some examples:

1/30 second –  Great if you want camera shake or movement blur

1/60 second – If you don’t have steady hands anything from here down (1/30 etc) will have camera shake and motion blur when capturing movement

1/125 second – My starting point if I don’t want camera shake and when I want to capture slow movement without too much blur

1/250 second – Good for freezing movement such as fast walking or slow biking

1/500 second – Good for freezing movement of a car or scooter

1/1000 second – Good for freezing movement of a Ferrari

1/2000 second – Good for freezing movement of a Lamborghini!

How to change your shutter speed on your fab digital SLR?  On my Canon 5D I need to use the wheel on the top of my camera. When looking through the viewfinder I can see the shutter speeds changing as I move the wheel. On your camera it may be in the same position, if not you need to locate it.

I think that is enough for today!  I will be posting Exposure and Depth of Field next week so stay tuned.

Have a great day.

“I wish more people felt that photography was an adventure the same as life itself and felt that their individual feelings were worth expressing. To me, that makes photography more exciting.” Harry Callahan




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‘M’ is for Manual Photography Week 1 – Your Camera

Camera-overview1 copy

Camera Overview

Welcome to Week 1 of ‘M’ is for Manual!

I hope you stick with me for this 4 week foray into the wonderful world of Manual photography! This is like getting out of camera jail..

On automatic settings we are limited in many ways, the camera chooses the point of focus, the exposure, the F-stop, the depth of field and whether or not we need to use flash.

In manual photography you get to decide what look you want and the creative choice is yours.

So I am going to start this post with the basic functions on digital SLR cameras. Unfortunately we can’t skip over this or we will never be masters or mistresses or our camera.

Digital SLR Cameras are highly sophisticated and have a million options, buttons, menus that I never use such as aperture priority or shutter speed priority.

Each camera’s functions and where you will find them on your camera may be slightly different. I am going to give you the example on my camera and this maybe the only time you need to check your manual if you can’t find them. Sorry gang.

Most Canon cameras will have the buttons in a similar place to mine even if they are different models, Nikon will have their own set of button placements as will other makes of cameras.

Camera Overview  – See the above image for location of the following.

Note: Wherever there is a button or selector on your camera it is like having a shortcut on your keyboard. It takes you straight to that function and on most good digital SLR cameras the important buttons are stand-alones as opposed to dialing through menus.

1. Lens – Most Digital SLR cameras have removable lenses and you will find a button to the left or the right of the lens on the camera body that you need to hold down whilst you twist the lens to the left or right (depending on your camera)

2. Mode Settings – This dial allows you to switch through different settings – Select M for manual

3. Shutter Release – thats the little baby that captures the photos we love when we hit it.

4. Wheel to change ISO, shutter speed, white balance

5. ISO selector – This allows us to select a different ISO (which will be explained next week) by holding it down and moving wheel left or right.

6. Mini LCD display shows your current F-Stop, shutter Speed, ISO and how many images remain if you continue to shoot the same style of photo

7. Focal length indicator – This will be discussed thoroughly in the coming weeks but it shows you on a zoom lens which focal length you are currently using.

8. Focus Ring – Allows you to choose the point of focus in your composition

9. Zoom Ring- On a zoom lens this allows you to change focal length (which means either zoom in or zoom out)

Back of camera

Overview back of camera

Overview Back of the Camera

On the back of the camera you have other options but I am going to go through the important ones.

1. Viewfinder (See above – whoops forgot to write it’s name.. big bit of glass to look through at the top)

2. On and off switch. On my camera if I switch it to On there are certain functions I can’t access. So I use it pushed all the way to the top to the third option – the bent line.

3. Menu Function – Hitting this is like entering Aladdin’s cave. Loads of options and menus from picture style, to selection of Raw or jpeg files and in my camera’s case using video.

4. Zoom in and out.. These will allow us to see fine detail in an image when it is displayed on the back of the screen.

5. Wheel to file through images and select F-Stops.

6. Button in the centre of the wheel is like using the enter key on your keyboard. When using a menu and you need to say yes generally this button is the yes button!

Menu button

Menu Button

Menu Button

If you hit the buttons down the side of your camera you will notice menus or options pop up. On my camera when I hit menu I have the option to enter 9 other menus. To access them I use the wheel on the top of the camera and the selector moves left to right along the top icons of cameras, wrenches and stars.

Once I have the menu I want selected, I use the wheel on the back of the camera to file down or up and then hit the enter button (the round button in the middle of the wheel) to enter. To select further options I use the back wheel and then the enter button.

Your menu button and options may vary, it is important to find them, know them so when you are out on the field if you are stuck you know how to change a menu.

NOTE: I leave the instructions to my camera in my camera bag for emergencies.

Picture STyle

Picture Style

Picture Style

As I mentioned above, the buttons on the side are shortcuts. These same options can be accessed by the menu but so much easier to hit the buttons on the side of the LCD screen to go straight to them. If you select the Picture Style button you will go straight to the Picture Style menu where using the wheel on the back of the camera you can change your picture style. Picture Style refers to the contrast, saturation, monochrome that you want to work in. I select standard as I want to do all of that in the digital darkroom afterwards.

Info button

 Info Button

Info Button

The info is a quick grab at what colour space, white balance, colour temperature you are currently working on and how much space is available on your card. We will discuss colour space, white balance and colour temperature in the coming weeks.


Play Button

Play Button

By selecting the play button you will see the last image shot. If you want to look through previous images you have taken you can simple use the back wheel to go through them. You must have an image displayed for this to work.

You will notice on my camera there are also two values above the image, the shutter speed and the F-Stop the image were taken on.

Underneath the play button is the trash button. You must have an image displayed to trash it, so if you want to delete an image display it, select the trash symbol, use the wheel to say yes and press the enter button (located in the centre of the wheel).


 Inside your view finder – Image via BhPhoto

Left to Right – Battery Symbol, Flash Symbol, 400 (indicates shutter speed) 2.8 (indicates F-Stop) Slider indicates exposure ISO 400 (indicates ISO) and 42 (indicates number of images remaining)


Go somewhere quiet where you will not be disturbed and try the below exercise. If you look through your viewfinder whilst doing it you will see something similar to the above image. As you change your settings of ISO, Shutter speed, F-Stop you will see the values change including the exposure slider. Exposure will be discussed next week.

Set your camera to M for Manual

Try and set a Picture Style

Change Your ISO

Change your F-Stop

Change your shutter speed

Take your lens on and off (don’t do it in a dusty or windy place) and get to know your camera.

Have a look in your menu function and see what the options are.

Check out the image size and see if you want to reset to a larger size and higher quality

Select Play and then review all the images on your card

Using the focusing ring have a look through the viewfinder and move it around and see what happens. Choose and point and try and focus on it.

Zoom ring – move the zoom ring to the left them to the right whilst looking through the viewfinder and see what happens. You should the composition changing from wide angle to zoomed in.

I hope this has helped you familarize yourself with your camera. Remember it is vital depending on the make and model of your camera to check the manual for these basic options. You must have mastered these before we move onto Exposure, ISO, F-Stops and Shutter Speed next week.

All the very best!

“Tell me and I forget. Teach me and I remember. Involve me and I learn.” Benjamin Franklin




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